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IDUKKI ഇടുക്കി

Idukki (Malayalam: ഇടുക്കി) is one among the 14 districts of Kerala state, India. The district headquarters is located at Kuyilimala in Painavu). The name of the district is derived from the malayalam word Idukki, meaning narrow gauge


The Early history of Idukki is obscure and there is no clear evidence about the paleolithic age.During 800 –1102 A.D, the Hiranges consisting of present Devikulam , Udumbanchola and Peermade taluks were part of the Kingdom of Vembolinad. During 16 th Century Major portions of Idukki district came under the rule of Poonjar Raja.
The Modern history of the district starts with the advent of Europen planters to this region. In 1877 Kerala Varma , the Raja of Poonjar sold 227 Sq. Miles of Kannan Devan hills to John Danial Manroe, a British Planter. The tract was largely unexplored and covered with thick forest. He formed the North Travancore Land planting and Agriculture society. The members of the society developed their own estates in various parts of Hiranges . Roads were opened , Transport organised, Houses and factories built and productions rose rapidly in the succeeding years. The pallivasal Hydroelectric Project, the first hydroelectric project of the State was initially constructed by the tea companies for the industrial use. Planters were the first migrants to the high range region covered by dense forest. Deforestation process start in the high ranges with advent of the plantation industry by the end of the 19 th century. Vast area of evergreen forest were destroyed in connection with the construction of several hydroelectrical projects, Roads, factories etc..
The High Range of Idukki attracted Scottish planters in the 19th century and they left behind some bungalows in an around Munnar, which are quite notable for their architectural beauty. Perhaps the most visible one to the tourists is Ladbroke House,which is named after the Ladbroke Square in London. The Trout, coniferous trees and dark green planter's cap are all contributions of those planters. Munnar had railway lines almost a century back. This started from the KDHP office at Munnar and extended up to Top Station near the Tamil Nadu border. The torrential rain and storm of 1924 destroyed the major part of the rail system and the Mattupetty dam still has the remains of the rail lines. Quite few of the rails are used as electric posts in Munnar. KDHP's tea factory has one of the wheels of the locomotives being kept there.
Idukki has the largest arch dam in India, the Idukki Dam, constructed for the Idukki Hydro Electric Power Project in 1969 with the cooperation of the Canadian Government. This single project powers almost half of the entire state and some parts of neighboring states. Mattupetty Dam is also here.

Country: India
Area:5,105.22 km2 (1,971 sq mi)
Population:11,29,221 (2001 update)
Density:259/km2 (671/sq mi)
Collector:Ashok Kumar Singh IAS
Idukki Township · Thodupuzha


Idukki has an area of 5,105.22 km2 (1,971.1 sq mi) and is the second largest District of Kerala. Rugged mountains and forests cover about 97 percent of the total area of the District. The district borders the Kerala districts of Pathanamthitta to the south, Kottayam to the southwest, Ernakulam to the northwest and Thrissur to the north and Coimbature, Dindigul and Theni Districts in Tamilnadu to the east. Anamudi, the highest peak in India south of Himalayas, is in the Kuttampuzha Panchayat of Adimali Block, in the K.D.H Village of Devikulam taluk. 13 other peaks in the district exceed a height of 2,000 m (6,562 ft). The Periyar, Thodupuzhayar and Thalayar are the important rivers of the district.


There are four taluks viz. Devikulam, Udumbanchola, Peermade and Thodupuzha and 65 villages in the district. There is only one Municipal town in the district is Thodupuzha. Munnar is census town. The largest village is Kannan Devan Hillsof Devikulam taluk with an area of 557 Sq. KM and smallest Kudayathoor village of Thodupuzha with an area of 21 Sq. KM. There are eight community development Blocks viz. Devikulam, Adimali, Nedumkandom, Azhutha, Kattappana, Idukki, Elamdesom and Thodupuzha. There are 51 Panchayaths in the district. Thodupuzha is the only Municipality and Idukki is the only township in the district. Munnar panchayat of Devikulam block is the largest in the district with an area of 557 Sq. KM and Karimkunnam in Thodupuzha block is the smallest panchayat of the district with an area of only 22 Sq. KM. The district headquarters started functioning at Kottayam and shifted to Painavu in June 1976. The developmental activities are co-ordinated by the District Rural Development Agency.


Idukki the hilly district of the state, has many unique topographical and geographical characteristics. The hiranges vary in attitude from 2500 feet above the mean sea level in Kulamavu to more than 5000 feet above the MSL in Munnar. There are eleven peaks in this district, which exceed a height of 6000 feet above the MSL. The highest peak in Kerala, Anamudy is in the K.D.H village of Devikulam taluk . Two types of soil are found in the district. The High land area is covered by forest soil (Alluvial soil) and the other parts by laterite soil. The climate in the district undergoes a sudden variation as we go from west to east. The highland regions is having a comparatively cold climate. Annual rainfall in this district vary from 250 cms to 425 cms. Munnar, Devikulam, Pallivasal, Vellathooval etc. are places getting high rainfall while Marayoor, Kanthalloor, Vattavada, Thaliar etc experience low rainfall. Marayoor and Kanthalloor are virtually rainshadow areas lying the eastern side of western ghats.


There are six state high ways passing through the district. New National Highway connecting Cochin Madura passes through the district. The railway does not passes through the district and nearest railway stations are Ernakulam, Kottayam and Alwaye. Nearest Port is Cochin Port and Nedumbassery, the International Airport is near to the northern boundary of the district. Transport and Communication, Medical and Educational facilities are poor compared to other districts. Agriculture is the main resources of the district and above 50% of the revenue earnings of the district is from the above sector.


Idukku is the district having the largest hydroelectric power potential. The Periyar river and its tributaries provide the required infrastructure for generating power. The Idukki Arch Dam is constructed across Periyar river in a narrow gorge between two granite hills (Kuravan and Kurathi hills) is the second highest in the country. Idukki the double curvature arch dam is the highest of its kind in Asia. Attached to this dam of 650 feet length and 550 feet height, two other dams are also there in Kulamavu and Cheruthony. The spillway of Idukki Reservoir is Cheruthony dam. The waterspread of Idukki Reservoir is about 60 Sq. KM and at a height of 701 Meter above mean sea level. The generators are located at Moolamattom, the underground power house beneath Nadukani hills. The Pallivasal hydroelectric project commissioned in 1939 utilising the waters of Mudirampuzha river, the important tributary of Periyar is the first power station of the State with aninstallation capacity of 13500 K.W. The Sengulam hydroelectric project is situated about 9 K.M down stream of Pallivasal Project in Mudirampuzha river 21.25 M.W Power is generated from this project. The Neriamangalam and Periyar hydroelectric Projects are the other projects. Panniyar hydroelectric project is developed on Panniyar , a tributary of Mudirampuzha river . Two Reservoirs, an upper Reservoir at Anayirankel and lower Reservoir at Ponmudi. Neriamangalam hydroelectric project utilises the tail waters of Sengulam power station and Panniyar power station and to excess catchment of Mudirampuzha river below Munnar. The power station is at Panamkutty.Lower Periyar hydroelectric project envisages utilisation of the tail waters from the existing Neriamangalam power station and the spill from Kallarkutty head works.


Idukki had a population of 1,129,221 as of 2001. Censusinfo [3] Eminent persons from Idukki district include K.M. Beenamol (Sports), K.M. Biju,(Sports), Shiny Wilson (Sports), P.J. Joseph (Politics). 11516 Scheduled tribal families are living in the district, including: Malayarayan, Mannan, Muthuvan, Oorali, Paliyan, Hilpulayan, Malapandaram, Ulladan and Malayan.


Apart from other districts in kerala, Idukki is well known for tourism.there are lots of place to see in Idukki and it is also famous for its Natural Wild Beauty, for the sake of information some tourist spots are listed below.
1. Idukki :Famous for the first double curvature Arch dam in India and wild life sanctuary. Attached to Idukki dam there are two other dams Kulamavu and Cheruthony. Idukki Reservoir is formed by these three dams. The underground power station is at Moolamattom beneath Nadukani hills. The sanctuary formed in 1978 spread over Thodupuzha and Udumbanchola taluks and located 40 K.M from Thodupuzha town. Idukki wild life sanctuary spread over an area of 7700 hectares with plenty of wild animals. The Malankara lake spread over about 11sq.k.m in Thodupuzha – Moolamattom route( 6 K.M from Thodupuzha)
2. Thekkady : Thekkady is one of the finest wild life reserves in India – the Periyar wild life sanctuary spread over an area of 777 Sq. K.M of which 360 sq. K.M is thick ever green forest. The Periyar wild life sanctuary was declared as a Tiger Reserve in 1978. The Mullaperiyar Dam built across the river Periyar with Surki mix before 121 years , still exist as a wonder to the tourists.
3. Mangaladevi Temple: The temple is located 15 K.M. from Thekkady The ancient temple built in Pandian style stands in the dense forest at the top of a peak 1337 Meter above the sea level. It situates in Tamil Nadu Kerala boundary. The visitors are allowed on the Chithrapournami festival day . The peak commands a panoramic view of the eastern slopes of the Western ghats . and the towns and villages of of Tamilnadu.
4. Thodupuzha: Thodupuzha is the commercial capital of Idukki district. It is also known as the Entrance of Highrange. The Head quarters of Thodupuzha taluk is situated in the banks of Thodupuzha river. This is a place of historical importance. Karikode near Thodupuzha was the headquarters of Vadakkumkur Raja, where there is the remains of a fort Devi temple and Ninar Mosque constructed by Vadakkumkur Raja. The famous Annamalai temple dedicated to Lord Shiva constructed in Chola style architecture is also located at Karikode. The church at Muthalakodam near Thodupuzha is believed to have constructed before 13th century.
5. Thommankuthu : Thommankuthu is a chain of cascades 17 K.M off Thodupuzha in Karimannoor Panchayath. This is a remote place with beautiful scenery of seven step water fall. This is developing to an important Tourist spot in the district.
6. Munnar : Situated 55 K.M from Idukki Town at an elevation of 1524 in above the mean sea level and on the confluence of three mountain streams Kannimalayar, Nallathanni and Kundala. It is health resort especially in summer season. It is the centre of Tea Industry and also the Head quarters of the Kannan Devan Hill produce Company (now owned by Tata Tea Company). Munnar also has the highest peak in South India Anamudi.
7. Mattupetty : The Indoswiss Project for the development of livestock is located at Mattupetty 15 K.M from Munnar. The Mattupetty lake and Kundala dam are other attraction. It is known for its highly specialised diary farm.
8. Eravikulam National Park : (15 K.M North of Munnar) The 97 Sq. K.M park is situated in the Devikulam taluk and is home to the Nilgiri Tahr. The Anamudi peaks is located in the southern region of the part. The park is divided into three regions. The core area , the butter area and the tourism area . Visitors are allowed only to the tourism area which is the Rajamala region. The Eravikulam was declared as a National Park in 1978.
9. Rajamala : Part of Eravikulam wild life sanctuary 14 K.M from Munnar. Neelekurinji unique with its feature of keeping the rhythm of flowering in twelve years . The only place where ibes (Varayad) is seen.
10. Pallivasal : 8 K.M from Munnar is the venue of the first hydroelectric project in Kerala and place for immense scenic beauty.
11. Marayoor : Situated 42 K.M North east to Munnar, and important place in Munnar - Udumalpetta Road. There is a megalethic burrial sites consisting of dolments and cists. This is a remote village of Devikulam taluk on the eastern slope of Western ghats. This is the only place in Kerala where natural growth of sandal tree is seen.
12. Chinnar wild life sanctuary : Chinnar wild life sanctuary having an area of 90.4 22 Sq. K.m is located in the rainshadow region on either side of Marayoor-Udumalpetta road. This is the second habitat of the endangered giant grizzled squirrel of India. The location of the sanctuary offers the unique advantage of watching its fascinating wild life at close quarters from the road without venturing deep into the jungle.
13. Ramakkalmedu : Located about 16 K.M from Nedumkandom on Munnar-Thekkady route. The hamlet bordering Tamil Nadu gives a panoramic view of Tamil Nadu villages and towns around Bodi and Cumbum on the eastern side of Western Ghats, the proposed site for power generation from winds.
14. Nadukani Tower (Near Moolamattom) : Panoramic view of Moolamattom Power house, hills and villages over a vast area of Thodupuzha taluk is available from this tower.
15. Kalvari Mount( Between Idukki & Kattappana) : An enchanting atmosphere with a charming view of Idukki Reservoir from Idukki to Ayyappancovil on one side of the hill and Panoramic view of Kamakshy and Mariyapuram panchaya ts on the other side .
16. Meenuliyanpara : Only pedestrain path for about 10 K.M from Mullaringad in Vannappuram Panchayath from where we can see Cochin Port and parts of Trichur district. An enchanting atmosphere and natural beauty.
17. Malankara Dam : The Dam is constructed across Thodupuzha river 5 K.m from Thodupuzha for irrigation purpose. The tail water from Moolamattom Power house is stored here. The banks of the Reservoir can be developed to a beautiful tourist attraction. Efforts are made in this direction by the Tourism organisations.


This district has several protected areas including: Periyar Tiger Reserve in the south, Kurinjimala Sanctuary to the east, Chinnar Wildlife Sanctuary to the north east, Eravikulam National Park and Anamudi Shola National Park to the north, Pampadum Shola National Park to the south and Thattekad Bird Sanctuary in the west. These protected areas are especially known for several threatened and endemic species including Tiger, Nilgiri Thar, Grizzled Giant Squirrel, Nilgiri Wood-pigeon, Elephant, Gaur, Sambar Deer, and Neelakurinji. Idukki is known for the splendid green mountains, streams and spices. It is one of the a main tourist destinations in Kerala with its hill stations, Devikulam and Munnar, surrounded by lush hills, tea plantations and valleys. Mattupetty, is the headquarters of the Indo-Swiss Cattle Project, about 11 km away from Munnar.


Kattappana, Kulamavu, Kumily, Moolamattom, Munnar, Murickassery, Nedumkandam, Painavu, Thekkady, Thodupuzha,Peerumade, Periyar, Vagamon, Kuttikkanam, Elappara, Marayoor, Devikulam, Koviloor, Kanthalloor, Udumbannor, Vattavada, Rajakkadu, Pooppara, Suryanelly, Udumbanchola, Vandanmedu, Cumbammettu, Anakkara, Amaravathy, Chakkupallam, Anavilasam, Thommankuthu,Thankamany, Thoprankudy, Adimaly, Ayyappancovil, Ponmudi, Rajamala, Erattayar, Karinkunnam, Thannikudy, Cheruthoni, Idukki, Vellathooval, Kunjithanni, Karimpan,Lower Periyar, Karimanal, Mattupetti, Gevi, Vallakkadavu