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KASARAGOD കാസര്‍ഗോഡ്

Kasaragod (Malayalam: കാസര്‍ഗോഡ്) is a town and a municipality in Kasaragod district in the Indian state of Kerala. It is the administrative headquarters of Kasaragod District as well as of Kasaragod Taluk. The city was formerly called Kanjirakuttom. Kasaragod is also the northernmost municipality of Kerala. To its south lies Kannur District and to the north the Dakshina Kannada district of Karnataka state. All along its east it is walled by the Western Ghats while along the west the Arabian Sea borders it. The district, covering an area of around 1992 km2, has a population (2001 census) of 1,203,342 and has two taluks, namely, Kasaragod and Hosdurg both being municipalities as well; seventy-five villages; thirty-nine panchayats. The district is further sub-divided into four administrative segments called development blocks, namely, Manjeshwar, Kasaragod, Kanhangad, and Nileshwar. Like other districts of Kerala, Kasaragod district too has a high literacy rate, around 85.17%. People from southern Kerala generally find it difficult to understand the Malayalam spoken here. Kasaragod district has Arabian sea to the west and Western ghats to the east. In ancient times, Kasaragod was known by Arabs by the name Harkwillia. Many Arab travellers who visited Kerala between 9th and 14th century visited Kasaragod, which was an important trade centre then. Duarte Borbosa, the Portuguese traveler who visited Kumbla, near Kasaragod in 1514, recorded rice being exported for coir to Maldives. Dr. Francis Buccanan, who was the family doctor of Arthur Wellesley, visited Kasaragod in 1800. In his travelogue, he recorded information on places like Athiraparambu, Kavvai, Nileshwaram, Bekal, Chandragiri and Manjeshwaram.


Kasaragod was once a part of the Tuluva kingdom. Then, there were 64 Malayalam and 64 Tulu villages in this part. When the Vijayanagara empire attacked Kasaragod, it was ruled by the Kolathiri Raja who had Nileshwaram as his capital. During the decline of the Vijayanagara empire, the administration of this area vested with Ikkery Naiks. At the onset of collapse of the Vijayanagara empire, Vengappa Naik declared indepenance to Ikkery. Kumbla, Chandragiri and Bekal are considered to be the chain of forts constructed by Shivappa Naik. In 1763, Hyder Ali conquered Bedanoor (Bidnur), the capital of the Ikkery Naiks. His son Tippu Sultan conquered the whole of Malabar. As per the Sreerangapattanam Treaty of 1792, Tippu surrendered Malabar, except Tulunadu (Canara) to the British. The British got Tulunadu only after the death of Tippu Sultan.

Country: India
Population:52,683 (2001 update)


The district is the northern most district of state of Kerala. Kasaragod is located at 12°30N 75°00E / 12.5°N 75.0°E / 12.5; 75.0. It has an average elevation of 19 metres (62 feet). The landscape is dominated by the characteristic coconut palms accompanying rolling hills and streams flowing into the sea. The landscape is dotted with tiled-roof buildings, topped with the famous Kasaragod tiles made with the local hard red clay and typically walled with laterite blocks. Older houses are commonly found with elaborate wood-work. Kasaragod district consists of two taluks viz., Kasaragod and Hosdurg (Kanhangad).


As of 2001[update] India census, Kasaragod had a population of 12,03342. Males constitute 49% of the population and females 51%. Kasaragod has an average literacy rate of 79%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 82%, and female literacy is 76%. In Kasaragod, 13% of the population is under 6 years of age.


The Kasaragod District is uniquely known for its Multi-Linguistic Culture and it is the best example for the "Linguistic Harmony". It's principal and recognized administrative languages are Malayalam, and Kannada. Tulu, Beary bashe and Konkani are also widely used. Besides these Marathi, Hindi, Urdu are also spoken here. The Malayalam spoken here has influences from Beary bashe and also from the languages of Urdu, Kannada, Konkani and Tulu. Like wise The Kannada and Tulu spoken here are also influenced by Malayalam.


Kasaragod is the one of the most beautiful districts in Kerala state with 11 rivers (out of a total of 44 rivers in Kerala), forts, beaches, hills and backwaters.
Bekal Fort is the biggest fort in Kerala which is 14 km from Kanhangad and 11 km from Kasaragod town. The nearest railway station is Pallikere railway station, now Bekal Fort railway station and the nearest airport is Mangalore airport.
Ranipuram - A number of grassy hills near by the Panathady town and linked to Kanhangad by Kanhangad-Panathur state highway.
Kottencheri hills - They are near Talakaveri, the starting point of the Kaveri river. It is 35 km from Kanhangad town.
Other tourist attractions are the Chandragiri Fort, Ananthapuram temple, Anandashramam, Nithyanandashramam, Malik Deenar Masjid, Valiyaparamba backwater and Kareem forest park - the only man made forest in the Kerala. The forest park is located at Parappa near Nileshwar. Kerala government has planned to set up a IT park in Kasaragod. Park will be constructed in 100 acres (0.40 km2) revenue land in Cheemeni which is estimated to bring 50,000 IT jobs.


Kasaragod district surrounded by three forest districts, North by Dakshin kannada (one NP and 2 wildlife sanctuaries), kodagu in east (one NP and two wildlife sancturaies) south by Kannur (one wildlfe sanctuary and one elephant corridor). Still today, forest officials of this district never sent any proposal to state forest department or central government for setting up sanctuary here, although shola, evergreen and mangrove forests are seen here. Kasaragod district is very rich in vegetation. Natural vegetation, except in some coastal regions, consists of different types of forests. But, in spite of generally favourable climatic conditions, vegetation is not uniform. In restricted regions, with their own micro climate or special edaphic features, plant formations assume different characters. Thus, plant communities, ranging from psammophytes and mangroves to evergreen forests are seen in this district.


Ranipuram shola NP/ wildlife sanctuary
Although local people of this area reported presence of wild elephants and shola forests, concerened forest officials of this district never tried for setting up of a NP or wildlife sanctuary. The proposed Ranipuram Wildlife sanctuary / National park of Kanhangad forest range consists of various flora and fauna which are endemic to the Western Ghats and a yet to studied biodiversity hotspot. It merges with the Talacauvery wildlife sanctuary. Ranipuram hill station which falls in Panathady reserve forest is an ideal area to notify as a wild life sanctuary/National park. shola forest seen only here in this district. Elephants, leopards, deer, wild dogs, wild boars, macaques, jungle cats, Leopard cats slender loris, porcupines, malabar giant squirrels, malabar civet cat, many species of birds, rare butterflies and medicinal plants are found in these forest. Most of these highly endangered animals are killed by people due to lack of conversational awareness or to protect their crops. Ranipuram wild life sanctuary will be in contiguous to Talacauvery wildlife sanctuary in Karnataka. If it is declared as a wild life sanctuary, it will enhance the tourism industry of this district along with Ranipuram hill station/Biodiversity park. Declaring it as a wildlife sanctuary is the only way to protect this Westernghat biodiversity hotspot and permanent solution for Encroachment, Poaching, hunting in night, mining, Illegal tree felling which are main threats for this park. The proposed Munnamkadavu Dam and Irrigation project may very useful to create fresh water ecosystem and later a wetland ecosystem to home for wild crocodile, otter, endangered fish and other water birds. Afforestation around the catchment area of dam reservoir will help to create another new wildlife sanctuary here in future and recreate lost wild elephant corridor. It is also an integral part of Brahmagiri biosphere.

Malom wildlife sanctaury
Malom reserve forest of Kanhangad range consists of Tropical rainforest and many wild animals like as rhesus monkey, wild pig, flying squirrels, slender loris, porcupine, and birds like peacock, Malabar hornbill and grey horn bill are seen. Snakes like cobras, python and king cobras reported. It is 28 km away east of Kanhangad in Balal-Kallar panchayath.

Adoor wildlife sanctuary
Adoor reserve forest which spreads about 2 km2 in Kasaragod district is the home for endangered animals like jungle cat, slender loris, wild pig, porcupine, turtles, peacock, Malabar horn bill, butterflies, medicinal plants and wet evergreen forest. Illicit tree felling, hunting, encroachment are main threats for this sanctuary. It is about 35 km east of Kasaragod town in Adoor-Kuttikol panchayath.

Parappa wildlife sanctuary
Parappa reserve forest of Kanhangad range are home for jungle cats, slender loris, wild pig, porcupine, turtles, peacock, Malabar horn bill, butterflies, medicinal plants and wet evergreen forest. Illicit tree felling, hunting, encroachment are main threats for this sanctuary. It is about 22 km East of Chervathur town

Kareem's Forest park
India's first private sanctuary which spreads across 32 acres (130,000 m2) and rich in diverse species of trees, medicinal plants, birds, insets, reptiles, amphibians, small wild animals, microorganisms and so on. People from different walks of life environmentalists, scientists, University and Ayurveda students, and laymen, all over the country visit his forest park for practical experience and study purpose. He is also multiplying and distributing the seeds and saplings of forest trees and medicinal plants and help our mother earth and help the nation to convert waste lands in to thick forests by replicating his efforts without involving additional coasts. The park is situated at Puliyamkulam, near Parappa. It is 23 km away east of kanhangad town. Frequent bus service available.